Educational Psychology Interactive: Knowledge about human beings

Major Sources of Knowledge
About Human Beings and Human Behavior

Citation: Huitt, W. (1996). Major sources of knowledge about human beings and human behavior. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date] from, http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/col/spiritual/scirelg.html


Return to: | Home | EdPsyc Interactive: Courses |


DIMENSION EXPERIENCE INTUITION RELIGION PHILOSOPHY SCIENCE
Primary
Focus
The study of reality beginning with personal experience as known through the senses The study of reality beginning with unconscious knowledge or insight The study of reality beginning with the metaphysical or spiritual aspect of the universe The study of reality as viewed through the human mind

The study of the essence of reality

The study of reality beginning with the material aspect of the universe
Foundation of
Investigation*
Faith** in sensory data and perceptions Faith in personal intuition, inspiration, and feelings Faith in authority of revelation

Faith in ultimate unknowns

Faith in reason Faith in reason and the experience of utilizing the scientific method
Methods of
Acquiring Knowledge
Personal interaction with the material, human and spiritual aspects of self and environment

Reflection on life experiences

Meditiation

Reflection

Dream analysis

Right-brain thinking techniques

Prayer

Meditation

Reading/listening to
scriptures

Discipline of material
self/ego

Association with other believers

Observation

Reflection

Discourse

Other methods used in science and religion

Careful description/
data collection

Correlational/
predictive

Experimental/
causal

Association/
literature

Criteria for
Validation
Personal, subjective

Consistent with prior experiences, reflections and interpretations

Personal, subjective

Interpretation of feeling, affect

Personal, subjective

Interpretation of revealed word or scriptures

Consistent with prior interpretations and reflections

Public, objective

Logically consistent

Appropriate to issue or topic under investigation

Public, objective

Verifiable

Replicable, cumulative

Concise, systematic

Major
Categories/
Schools of
Thought
Idiosyncratic to the individual

Influenced by biology, social interactions and culture

Art and Humanities

Consciousness

Creativity

Education and Training

Parapsychology

Personal Growth and
Development

Problem Solving

Psychotherapy

Middle Eastern
-------------------
Judaism
Zorastrianism
Christianity
Islam
Baha'i Faith

Asiatic
-------------------
Hinduism
Buddhism
Taoism
Confucianism

Idealism
Pragmatism
Objectivism
Existentialism
Perspectivism
Systems Theory
Psychology
------------------
Biological
Evolutionary
Psychodynamic
Gestalt
Behavioral
Humanistic
Cognitive
Systems (Organismic)
Probability
of Change
for Human Beings
Human beings construct meaning from their experiences with the world

This construction is "real" to the individual even if it does not match "reality."

It is possible, but very difficult, to change the constructed paradigm of how the world works, especially after puberty

Human beings can utilize unconscious knowledge to provide insights that can lead to profound change

Unlimited potential for change if correct inspirations are rightly followed

Single, All-knowing, All-loving Creator (or creative force) constructed human beings with capacities/ powers (to know, to love, to will) that can be infinitely developed Range of views on possibilities of personal development of human capacities

Most acknowledge that context will impose time/social/
geographical limitations

Range of views on possibilities of personal development of human capacities

With possible exception of humanistic, there is limited potential for personal control of individual development because of powerful biological, evolutionary, historical, and social forces

I have used this analysis to construct a statement of my viewpoint or philosophy of human nature. I hope you can use it to develop your own.


| Internet Resources | Electronic Files | Additional articles | Additional books | Additional videos |