Cooperative Learning

Citation: Huitt, W. (2009). Cooperative learning. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], from

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Major Components

  1. Cooperative interaction within groups
  2. Group incentives that motivate students to urge fellow students to perform well
  3. Individual accountability
  4. Equal opportunity for earning high scores and contributing to group effort
  5. Task specialization
  6. Competition among groups

Sample Cooperative Learning Activity


  1. Balkcom , A. (1992, June). Cooperative learning. Education Research Consumer Guide, Number 1.
  2. Ngeow, K. (1998). Enhancing student thinking through collaborative learning (ERIC Digest). Bloomington, IN: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading, English, and Communication. Retrieved May 2002, from
  3. Student team learning activities developed by Robert Slavin and others.

Major Schemes

  1. Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT)--DeVries, D., & Slavin, R. (1978). Teams- Games-Tournaments (TGT): Review of ten classroom experiments. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 12,28-38.
  2. Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD)--Slavin, R. (1978). Student teams and achievement divisions. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 12, 39-49.
  3. Team-Assisted Individualization (TAI)--Slavin, R. (1989). Comprehensive cooperative learning models for heterogeneous classrooms. The Pointer, 33(2), 12-18.
  4. Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)--Stevens, R., Madden, N., & Slavin, R. (1987). Cooperative integarted reading and composition: Two experiments. Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 433-454.
  5. Learning Together--Johnson, D., & Johnson, R. (1987). Learning together and alone (2nd Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  6. Jigsaw--Aronson, E. (1978). The Jigsaw classroom. Beverly Hill, CA: Sage.
  7. Jigsaw II--Slavin, R. (1980). Using student team learning (rev. ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Social Organization of Schools.
  8. Group Investigation--Joyce, B., & Weil, M. (1986). Models of teaching. (pp. 219-238). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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